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operation, and to meet the requirements of 4G IMT-Advanced mobile networks. The multiple hop nature of the IEEE 802.16j entails numerous design challenges, ranging from OFDMA frame structure design to traffic forwarding and path management. Moreover, in order to support 1 Gbit/s data rate in low mobility applications and 100 Mbit/s in high-speed mobility applications aimed at by 4G, a wide spectrum of physical layer and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer innovations need to be introduced. Other issues such as regulation, spectrum management, application innovation and economic model for WiMAX deployment for 4G all deserve thorough discussion and investigation.