Updated 4 days ago
Whereas the historical literature tends to discuss each type of institution for collective action separately, our group tackles them all at once whereby the fact that they have some institutional features in common (cf. De Moor, 2008) is taken as the starting point for the analysis. All these institutions tried to answer certain social dilemmas and used collective action as a method to create economies of scale and to avoid risks - both natural and market-related, and to restrict outsiders from accessing scarce resources. Commons (for instance markegenootschap and meent in the Netherlands, Gemeinde and Genossenschaft in Germany) were created for the collective management and use of natural resources. These institutions limited the impact of harvest failures due to unpredictable weather, floods, or diseases, while on the other hand they saved on investments in, for example, fencing and drainage systems. These institutions, moreover, created social security provisions for their members,..