GRANT-IN-AID FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Updated 66 days ago
M100-S16. 18th Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA, USA
(≥5 years) CaD supplementation reduced the risk of death. Specifically, the CaD intervention did not affect death from coronary heart disease where the hazard ratio was 0.99 (95 % CI, 0.71, 1.38) . With this background, the only documented risk associated with the randomized intervention in the CaD trial is a modest elevation (HR of 1.17, 95 % CI from 1.02 to 1.34) in urinary tract stone occurrence that did not differ significantly between the personal supplements and no personal supplements subsets. Observational data have several limitations in addressing these types of research questions. For outcomes, such as hip fractures and heart disease, where calcium and/or vitamin D from foods or supplements may have developed a reputation as potential disease preventatives, observational studies not only need to control for standard confounding factors, but also for factors related to confounding by indication since persons at elevated risk for these diseases may self-select, or..